Tuesday, January 24, 2017


● a genre of poetry, and a major form
of narrative literature.
● a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily
concerning a serious subject containing
details of heroic deeds and events
significant to a culture or nation.
● An extended narrative poem in elevated
or dignified language, celebrating the
feats of a legendary or traditional hero.
● Consists of many characters and
describes the fight between good and
evil in which good ultimately wins.
● Always consists of many sections with
many sub-stories related in some way
with the main one.
● It deals with the grand theme as trivial
matters can’t be it’s theme.
● A public poem ,generally nationalistic or
● Mainly two types of epic:
- Traditional epics and
- Literary epics
The traditional epics are also called “
Primary epics” or “Folk epics”. They are
of unknown authorship recited before
an audience and are passed along as a
part of oral tradition. Homer’s Iliad and
Odyssey, ‘Anglo – Saxon Beowulf’, are
the examples of traditional epics.
Literary epics are called “Secondary
epics” or “ Arts epics”, such epics are
meant to be read. For example, Virgil’s
Aeneid, Dante’s Divine Comedy and
Milton’s Paradise Lost.

● A Song like poem composed mainly to
express the feelings and emotions of the
● A short poem, originally one meant to
be sung as it consists of music through
tune, rhyme and rhythm etc.
● A subjective or personal poem
expressing the varying moods of the
● The salient features of lyrics include
brevity, spontaneity, music, and
dominance of personal emotion.
● There are different types of lyrics :
Dramatic Lyrics, Personal Lyrics, or
Love Lyrics etc.
● In Dramatic Lyrics, the speaker is
represented as addressing another
person in a specific situation. For
example, John Donne’s
“Cannonization”and William
Wordsworth “Tintern Abbey”.
● In Personal Lyrics, the poets usually give
the references of the known
circumstances for their own lives. For
example John Milton’s “When I consider
How My Light Is Spent”
● In Love Lyrics, the poets may express
their intense passion of love or their
concept of youth and beauty. For
example, Robert Burns’ “O My Love Is
like A Red, Red Rose”.

Ǻ.Ǻ.Ȁ Pastoral
● A form of poetry which expresses an
urban poet’s nostalgic image of the
supposed peace and simplicity of the life
of shepherds and other rural folk in the
idealized natural setting.
● It is an idealized depiction of rural life,
viewed as a survival of the simplicity,
peace and harmony that has been lost
by a complex and urban society.
● The pastoral form was inaugurated by
the Greek poet Theocritus in the third
century B.C. Later the famous poet Virgil
imitated the pastoral form and
popularized it.
● In the renaissance the traditional
pastoral was also adopted to diverse
satirical and allegorical uses. Spenser’s
Shepherd’s Calendar, Sidney’s Arcadia,
and Marlowe’s “The Passionate Shepherd
to his Love” are some examples of
pastoral poetry.

Ǻ.Ǻ.ȁ Narrative poetry
● Narrative poetry is a form
of poetry which tells a story, often
making use of the voices of a narrator
and characters as well; the entire story is
usually written in metered verse.
● It follows a similar structure as that for a
short story or novel as there is a
beginning, a middle and an end, as well
as the usual literary devices such as
character and plot.
● A narrative poem can take the form of
rhyming couplets, or it can go more in
the direction of prose poetry, in that the
rhyme scheme is flexible. There are
many variations on the theme of the
narrative poem.
● In comparison to stories, narrative
poems are compressed and only
concentrates on striking details. Ballads
are the popular narrative poems.

● A type of narrative that developed in the
12th century France, spread to the literature
of other countries, and displaced the earlier
epic and heroic forms. Romances were at
first written in verse, but later in prose as
● It is a distinguished from the epic in that it
does not represent a heroic age of tribal
wars, but a courtly and
chivalric(gentlemanly/knightly) age, often
one of highly developed manners and
● The main theme of the romance is
courtly love(knightly love for a lady).
● It stresses the chivalric ideals of courage,
loyalty, honor and mercifulness.
● It is filled with supernatural events as
well as magic, spells and enchantment.
For example, the stories of king Arthur
written in verse are the romances.

● The structure or pattern of organization that
a poet chooses in writing a poem is referred
to as being either open or closed.
● An open form does not have an established
pattern to it, whether it be in line length,
meter, rhyme, imagery syntax or stanzas.
● Open form poetry rejects the organization
and structure found in traditional poetry.
● A close form does have an established
pattern in one or more of those areas.
Sonnet, Haiku (a three line poem),
Limericks, and Villanelle are the
examples of closed forms.
● An open form poem allows the poet to
write freely without worrying about
trying to make the words fit a specific
meter or rhyme scheme.
● It also allows the poet to place words
anywhere on the page to create desired
● Free verse is open form poetry.
● Walt Whitman and T.S. Eliot composed
open form poetry or free verse in
1.2 Poetry in a Language Classroom
● 1.2.1 Poetry with the language learners
● 1.2.2 Teaching unusual language features
● 1.2.3 Poetry in the lower level
● 1.2.4 Poetry in the higher level
1.2.1 Poetry with the language learners
● Poems are highly useful for language
learners as they are rich and authentic
● Poems differ linguistically from more
usual or standard forms of English and has
been described as deviating from the
norms of the language, which clearly has
some important implications for the use of
poetry in language classroom.
● Poetry is pedagogically useful and
necessary to provide students with
idealized language rules. Due to the
exploit of more deviant or unusual use of
language, the learners’ language
awareness and interpretative abilities may
● Poetry may produce strong response from
the learners and this may motivate them
for further reading of poetry in foreign
● However, poetry should be selected in
accordance to the interests, language and
maturity levels of the learners.
1.2.2 Teaching unusual language features
● Poetry is a wide ranging type of text and
has many purposes and forms.
● Poetry uses different language features
often more intensively to achieve a
concentrated effect like mood, humour
● There may be use of rich vocabulary:
powerful nouns, verbs, adjectives,
invented words, and unusual word
● The materials or tasks for students should
be devised around the unusual features
used in the poem. A teacher may need to
help the students with:
- unusual language used in the poem
- unfamiliar words, phrases, grammatical
constructions or syntactic features
- important discoursal or formal features
of the poem
- ambiguities in the poem like pun etc.
- figurative or symbolic meaning
- figures of speech or rhetorical devices
- musical qualities in the poem etc.

1.2.3 Poetry in the lower level
● There are various types of poems meant for
the initial stage of teaching English at lower
● The classes of beginners usually study
jingles (songs), nursery rhymes and
gradually they start studying descriptive and
narrative poems.
● At this stage, the children are likely to
appreciate the music, rhythm of the poem
● Jingles and nursery rhymes provide them
with innocent fun and delight.
● The aim of teaching poetry at this stage
is to help the students to enjoy the
rhythm and music and thus gain a sort of
emotional pleasure.
● To make the teaching of poetry at this
stage an enjoyable activity for the
students, the following steps may be
● Step1: The chart or set of pictures
regarding the poem is shown. Then the
teacher tells something about the poem
in mother tongue or in simple English to
create proper atmosphere for it.
● Step 2 : Model recitation of the poem is
done by the teacher.
● Step 3 : Gestures and actions are
performed by the teacher where ever
● Step 4 : Dealing with difficult words and
content in simple English.
● Step 5 : Different students are asked to
recite the poem one by one. Drill can be
used in small groups.
● Step 6 : Simple type of comprehension
questions are put to the students.

Ǻ.ǻ.ǽ Poetry in the higher level
● As every poem is the product of a process
involving ideas about some objects or
individual feelings about some events or
objects, higher level students also find
difficulties in grasping the meaning of it.
Some poems may sound vague due to the
lack of ideas about the content and other
difficulties may be in :
- Understanding the individual words in the
- Understanding the metaphorical/symbolic
meaning behind phrases or lines in the
- Understanding the historical context which
forms the text’s background.
- Understanding the poet’s attitude to what
he sees around him.
- Responding personally to the themes of
the poem.
● Moreover, knowledge about rhymes,
meters, syllables, word stress and stress
patterns in sentences, oral expression, oral
fluency, intonation pattern is also required
to appreciate the poem fully.
Ǻ.Planning lessons and designing
materials for teaching poetry
● When planning a lesson and designing
materials for teaching poetry, one must
find out the difficulties that students
face while reading or studying a poem.
● The following checklist of some possible
questions may be useful for a teacher to
cope with the problems.
Ǻ.The background to the poem:
To make sense of the poem do the
students need to know about:
- any cultural or historical information?
- the collection from which the poem is
- the author’s life or other works?
- what genre the poem belongs to? etc.
ǻ. The Language of the poem.
Do you need to help the students with:
- any unusual language in the poem
- any unfamiliar vocabularies, keywords
or syntactic features?
- any important discoursal or formal
features of the poem?
- any ambiguities in meanings?
- any figurative or symbolic meanings?
- any figures of speech or rhetorical
devices in the poem?
- any musical qualities? etc
Ǽ. Motivating and involving students
-can the theme or topic of the poem be
made relevant to the students own
- how does the use of poem in class
mesh with the requirements of the
-what activities will most suit the learning
styles of the students?etc..

No comments:

Post a Comment